Blooms RevisedThis is a featured page

Author: Corey JohnsonTable of Contents

In 1956, a committee of educational psychologists, led by Benjamin Bloom, developed a classification of intellectual objectives and skills essential to learning. These learning objectives, known as Bloom's Taxonomy, are divided into three domains: Affective, Psychomotor, and Cognitive. Forehand (2005) defines Bloom's taxonomy as a multi-tiered model of classifying thinking according to six cognitive levels of complexity. For over 50 years, these objectives have been used to structure lessons, guide learning, and assess students' performance. However, current educational initiatives have prompted the revision of these objectives to include the use of technology for instruction. In the 1990s a team of cognitive psychologists, led by Lorin Anderson (a former student of Bloom), revised Bloom's original objectives. The following diagrams compare Bloom's original taxonomy to Anderson's revised taxonomy.

Bloom's Taxonomy Versus Bloom's Revised Taxonomy

Bloom's Taxonomy Bloom's Revised Taxonomy

The use of verbs instead of nouns is a key revision to the original taxonomy. The verbs are critical in organizing the hierarchy of domains and determining what technology should be used to facilitate learning through the integration of computer and Web-related resources. Another key point is the new placement of each category within the hierarchy. The revised taxonomy places creativity as the highest level of cognitive skill as compared to evaluation within the original taxonomy.

The revised taxonomy has been recently updated to reflect the current educational and training practices that include the integration of technology. Andrew Church's Bloom's Digital Taxonomy addresses the struggles teachers face when attempting to integrate new technology into classroom lessons. Church (2008) suggested Bloom's revised taxonomy accounts for many of the traditional classroom practices, behaviors, and actions, but it does not account for the new processes and actions associated with Web 2.0 technologies. Church's updates focus on the development of lessons that facilitate collaborative learning via digital technology. The updates to the revised taxonomy are more closely aligned to the standards outlined under the 21st Century Learning framework.

What, Why, How

Extended Learning
Applying Blooms Taxonomy

Read the complete Article by Andrew Church Bloom's Digital Taxonomy (pdf format)

Educational Origami's+Digital+Taxonomy

Forehand, M. (2005). Bloom's taxonomy. Emerging Perspectives on Learning, Teaching, and Technology. Retrieved July 21, 2008 from

Open Education

Performance, Learning, Leadership, & Knowledge Site

Pohl, M. (2000) Blooms taxonomy. Retrieved July 21, 2008 from


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